How to plant a bulb lasagne

To get long lasting spring flower displays you need to try layering bulbs in what is called a ‘ bulb lasagne.’  This is when you layer them up one on top of another. It starts with the largest and latest flowering bulbs like tulips which go in deepest, moving to medium ones like daffodils (narcissus). The  smallest and earliest flowering bulbs  eg. crocus, snowdrops, iris, grape hyacinths, scillas, puschkinias, chinodoxas and anemones can go  in the top layer. The emergent shoots of the lower layer bulbs just bend magically round anything they hit sitting over their heads and keep on growing. Isn’t nature wonderful!

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With this  technique you need to plant the bulbs slightly further apart than you would in a pot with a single layer, so 5-10cm  apart is the right sort of spacing. The first layer can go as deep as 30-40cm deep. Typically in  pots, you can plant your bulbs closer than you do in the garden but  they shouldn’t touch each other or the sides of the pot.

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Then cover them over with a couple of inches of potting compost, before you place the next layer of bulbs. I tend to dress the top of the pot with grit – this will prevent mice or squirrels trying to dig up the bulbs during the winter months.

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Drainage is key with bulbs, so make sure  all your pots and containers have more than one hole  in the bottom. Keep them watered after planting, and regularly in the first weeks when their roots are forming. Don’t let the compost dry out.

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Grow Ammi

The spectacular Ammi makes one of the most useful and productive filler flowers in the summer garden.  It can be an annual or biennial, upright or spreading, with fern-like pinnately divided leaves and large branched umbels of small creamy-white flowers. With an airy splendour it works well amongst a range of plants in a mixed herbaceous border or in a bouquet. The more you pick, the more the plant will flower!

It prefers to grow in sun or partial shade and in well drained soil.  Sow seeds indoors or under glass in a seed tray 6-8 weeks before the last frosts – then transplant out for the growing season.  Allow your seed to develop to save and to sow the following year or leave the seed head for the goldfinches in your garden which will come to feed on them during the cold winter months.  The flowers are also beneficial for pollinators and predatory insects in your garden.

It is best to pick the flowers when 80% of the flowers on the stem are fully open. If harvested earlier there can be a tendency for the stems to wilt.   The fresh flowers of Ammi typically last from 6-8 days in a vase and it is suggested to add flower preservative to the water.

The origin of Ammi is uncertain.  It is generally considered to be native to southern Europe, northern Africa, and western and central Asia.

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The Coffee Show Garden

The Coffee Garden won a Gold medal, Best in Show and the People’s Choice Award at Gardening Scotland 31st May – 2nd June 2019

Designed by Kirsty Wilson and constructed by the RBGE Diploma in Garden Design students.

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Coffee is one of the world’s favourite drinks, one of the most important commercial crop-plants, and the second most valuable international commodity. Everyone loves coffee and it is one of life’s greatest pleasures. However many people have forgotten the home of coffee and that it is originally from a plant. Although there are 125 species of coffee, we only actually use two species to produce the popular beverage Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta.

Many plantations are based on one plant meaning low genetic diversity, which means they have low tolerance to pests and diseases. Our climate is changing and this could directly affect coffee production in the future. This is why monitoring, and studying plants is vital to our survival on earth – without plants there is no life. This show garden reflects the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh’s mission to educate people about plants, connecting people with nature and making a positive impact on the world.

At a time when climate change is arguably the most pressing of global challenges, the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) is working with partners at home and abroad to address the central issue of worldwide plant conservation. RBGE’s work involves protecting plant species before they disappear and monitoring the situation to understand the speed with which their habitats are changing.

RBGE is currently conducting work in Colombia as it is one of the most biodiverse countries on earth. Practically every kind of ecosystem can be found within its borders. Colombia is one of the world’s greatest coffee-producing nations, selling US $2.64 billion around the world each year.  RBGE Colombia aims to study the biogeography evolution and conservation of Colombian biomes. Field expeditions are being conducted in close collaboration with local communities and researchers in areas of Paramo, mountain forest, cloud forest, dry forest and lowland rain forest. This garden highlights RBGE’s outreach abroad and highlights the institutions impact on explaining and exploring the world of plants for a better future.

 

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The colour theme for the garden is bitter chocolate, lime green and soft apricot – inspiration taken from the shades of the fruit from the Coffea plant which contains the valuable coffee beans.

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The Garden’s message

  • Highlights RBGE’s work in terms of education, research and conservation to the public visiting the show.

  • Connects people with nature and the importance of plants affecting our daily lives.

  • Highlights the threats to coffee production and other plant life globally from climate change and habitat loss.

  • Promotes the purchasing of environmentally friendly and fair trade coffee and the sustainable use of coffee cups.

  • Displays that RBGE is at the forefront of the battle to save the planet through its work both at home and abroad.

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Plant List for the Coffee Garden: 

Acer ‘Bloodgood’

Acer ‘Senkaki’

Actaea simplex ‘Brunette’

Actaea simplex ‘Pink Spike’

Aquilegia ‘Black Barlow’

Aquilegia vulgaris ‘William Guiness’

Carex testacea

Deschampsia flexuosa ‘Tatra Gold’

Dryopteris wallichiana

Euphorbia characias ssp. Characias ‘Humpty Dumpty’

Geum ‘Alabama Slammer’

Geum ‘Flames of Passion’

Geum ‘Tequila Sunrise’

Geum ‘Totally Tangerine’

Heuchera ‘Binoche’

Heuchera ‘Black Sea’

Heuchera ‘Caramel’

Heuchera ‘Green Spice’

Heuchera ‘Lime Marmalade’

Heuchera ‘Sweet Tea’

Hosta ‘Empress Wu’

Hosta fortunei var. albopicta f. aurea

Hosta ‘Summer Dress’

Iris ‘Kent Pride’

Libertia ‘Grasshopper’

Mathiaosella bulpeuroides ‘Green Dream’

Paeonia ‘Coral Charm’

Paeonia ‘Pink Hawaiian Coral’

Pistia stratiotes

Physocarpus opulifolius ‘Amber Jubilee Jelfam’

Physocarpus opulifolius ‘Diabolo’

Sambucus ‘Milk Chocolate’

 

The  plants for the design were sourced from:

Binny Plants, Mac Plants, Caulders & McLaren’s Nursery

 

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String of Pearls

Curio rowleyanus

This fascinating succulent has an incredible hanging habit with globe like leaves. The leaves of this plant have evolved as bead like globes that help it  limit evaporation in its desert home of South West Africa where it grows between rocks.   Desirable in your home it will look great styled in a hanging planter or placed on an item of furniture where the trailing stems can hang down for the best effect.

The small white fluffy flowers are cinnamon-scented, followed by small fluffy seed heads. It likes a lot of bright light in your home so make sure you position it in a sunny room.

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If you look closely at the globular leaves, you will notice leaf windows (epidermal windows) similar to the markings on a classic beach ball. These clear leaf windows allow more sunlight to pass into the leaf for maximum photosynthesis. Many other succulents such as Lithops and Haworthia use this similar adaptation to their leaves.

 

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‘String of Pearls’ will hate to sit in moisture, which means use a free draining mix of compost such as 50:50 John Innes No 2 and horticultural sand.  It is best to slow down the watering in winter to maybe once a month, but check the soil before you water every time. Ideally in the active growing season it will need watered once a week. Feed once a month from spring through autumn with a standard house plant liquid fertiliser.

Taking cuttings for friends is as easy as just snipping off a ‘string’. Strip some ‘pearls’ from part of the stem and bury this part in well-draining compost at the edge of a pot. Within a few weeks, it will root and become a new plant.

 

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Kale Crisps 

Kale Cavolo Nero – this winter vegetable is perfect for our northern climate. The textured leaves become slightly sweeter in taste after the first frosts. This home grown vegetable can be used in all sorts of recipes – from soups to salads, kale crisps and to complement meat dishes. The crinkled leaves are an attractive addition to your vegetable plot during the winter months adding structural interest.

 

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In the Garden 

Sow the seeds in April – May ideally into 10cm pots using ordinary multi purpose compost. Once the seedlings have reached about 15-20cm in size you can then transplant them out into your vegetable pot or raised beds. Space them about 45cm apart, as they can grow up to 1m tall during the growing season. Cavolo Nero is a 1cut and come again1 variety meaning the leaves once cut for the kitchen will regrow. Evenly harvest from your plants to prevent exhausting just one plant. This vegetable is known for being generally pest and disease free – it also doesn’t require a huge amount of water to grow.

 

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Recipe: Kale Crisps

1 baking tray with kale leaves 100g

Olive oil (50ml)

A sprinkling of sea salt ( you can also try paprika or ras el hanout spices)

Serves 2 

 

  1. Wash the kale leaves with water.
  2. Shake the leaves dry.
  3. Lightly drizzle olive oil onto the leaves and gently mix to ensure the leaves are covered evenly.
  4. Then sprinkle the sea salt or spices over the leaves.
  5. Place the leaves onto a baking tray and cook at 200C in the oven for 10-15 minutes until the leaves are crisp.
  6. Serve in a dish and enjoy eating as a healthy alternative to potato crisps.

 

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Dazzling Dahlias

Vibrant Dahlias are one of the most widely grown and much loved cut flowers. Their brilliant blooms come in a wide range of colours, flowering from mid summer until the first frosts. Almost every garden is suited to Dahlias whether that is in the border or an attractive container.

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Dahlias like full sun and free draining soil, where they will thrive and bloom abundantly, but also grow well in large pots. Dahlias are not hardy and should not be planted until the soil has warmed and all danger of frost has past. They are best started in a heated glasshouse or polytunnel during the spring and are hungry plants that require quality compost or well-rotted manure.

When you plant your Dahlia tubers dig the hole 12-15cm deep and place them horizontally with the growing eye facing up. Then refill the hole with soil. It is important to remember Dahlias get quite large, so allow at least 45cm of space between plants.

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These beauties require generous amounts of water throughout the growing season if the summer is warm and dry. When you are just starting to grow them they should only be watered when you see the first green shoots breaking through the ground. Overwatering before shoots are visible can lead to tuber rot. Once the plants reach  30cm tall, give them a pinch by snipping out about 8cm of the growing centre to encourage low basal branching, which increases flower production and overall stem length.

 

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As for pests slugs and snails damage young plants. You may want to put down slug and snail bait at planting time and periodically throughout the season. Nematodes are also an organic option that is safe for both children and pets, and works well. It is important to stake the plants as many will get tall and this will prevent them from falling over.

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While Dahlias are not a very long lasting cut flower, you can get 5-7 days from stems picked at the proper stage. Since Dahlias don’t open much after they’ve been harvested, it’s important to pick them almost fully open, but at the same time not overly ripe where they have begun to brown. Check the back of each flower head, looking for firm and lush petals as these make the best cut flowers.

 

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Philadelphus

Philadelphus is found widely in the wild, from Eastern Europe to the Himalayas, Eastern Asia and North and Central America, but in gardens we tend to grow cultivated varieties of these wild species and they can vary in both size and flowering type.  The blooms appear in early summer and are always white and scented. Grow this shrub in moist but well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. The scent of its cup-shaped flowers are known to resemble that of orange blossom.  Hence the common name ‘mock orange’

In your garden prune out some older wood immediately after flowering, cutting back flowered stems to a lower growth bud, which will then sprout and regrow. The green shoots that grow this summer will flower next year and in this way you can make sure that your shrub keeps producing flowers rather than becoming reluctant to flower.

Give the shrub a good mulch in spring to help seal in moisture this will help it stay healthy and well fed. Its flowering season may be brief but its glorious flowers are necessary for any garden.

 

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Peonies

Peony flowers are large, vibrant and romantic.

Herbaceous Peonies are easy to grow in any garden and typically flower in May. They need plenty of water but not waterlogged ground. The soil must drain well and have good organic matter. If your soil is clay add organic matter so that it doesn’t stay permanently wet. Herbaceous peonies need to be planted with the budding stems no more than 2cm beneath the soil surface and if planted too deep may not flower. They flower best in full sun but can tolerate light shade and are best moved when the plant is dormant between October and March. Peonies that are the herbaceous form can be divided to make new plants. Just make sure that three stem buds are visible in each of your divisions. Patience is critical with this plant as it can take around three years for them to flower well. They are known for being long lived and can live up to 50 years. As a cut flower they can last up to 10 days in a vase. Many people are not aware that some peonies have a scent so place in a vase in a warm room. Another bonus for planting peonies in your garden is that rabbits do not like the taste of them which is a great reason to plant even more.

Tree peonies on the other hand are also a wonderful addition to any garden. To some the name ‘tree’ might cause some confusion – no this does not mean it grows as tall as a tree! The main difference between tree peonies and their herbaceous cousins is that tree peonies do not die down to the ground in winter. They lose their leaves in late autumn but a woody scaffolding of  stems remain. The blooms can sometimes be larger and can be placed at a more elevated position in a border in comparison to the herbaceous forms.

 

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Stachyurus praecox

This delightful deciduous shrub is known for its unusual and colourful late winter and early spring flowers. These typically appear before the foliage emerges and are arranged in pendant catkin-like racemes that hang from the branches. The foliage can turn rosy red and yellow during the Autumn season. The genus comes from the Greek word Stachys meaning an ear of corn – hence the hanging flowers appearance. Plants in this genus are sometimes commonly called spiketail also in reference to the flowers. Native to Japan it  was introduced to UK cultivation in 1864. It can be grown by seed or summer cuttings taken with a heel in late July and given bottom heat. Layering is also a method – do this in summer months and the new plant should be ready to detach the following spring. It grows well in fertile soil that is free training in full sun or partial shade of a woodland. In terms of garden design  it is a perfect shrub for woodland gardens or it can be effectively trained against a wall with southern exposure.

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